(Pharmaceutical Preparations and Posology)

Table of Contents

  • Collection of the drug

  • Storage

  • Pharmaceutical Processing

  • Añjana

  • Antardhūma

  • Arka

  • Ariṣṭa

  • Avaleha (Rasakriyā)

  • Āsava

  • Upanāha (Poultice)

  • Uṣṇodaka

  • Eraṇḍa Bhṛṣṭa Harītakī

  • Kajjalī

  • Kalka (Paste)

  • Kvātha (Decoction)

  • Kāñjī

  • Kṣāra

  • Kṣīrapāka (Medicated milk)

  • Khaṇḍa Kalpanā

  • Ghṛta Pāka

  • Gomūtra Harītakī

  • Catuḥṣaṣṭiprahari Pippalī

  • Cūrṇa (Powder)

  • Juice, Fresh Juice

  • Decoction

  • Takra (Butter Milk)

  • Taṇḍulodaka

  • Taila Pāka

  • Parpaṭī

  • Powder

  • Pānaka

  • Piṣṭi

  • Muktā, Pravāla, Jaharamoharā, Hajratabera, Akīka and Hajrat Yahuda Piṣṭī.

  • Paste

  • Poultice

  • Peyā

  • Phāṇṭa

  • Bhāvanā

  • Bhasma

  • Mūṣā

  • Puṭa

  • Sūrya Puṭa or Raudra Puṭa

  • Candra Puṭa

  • Mahā Puṭa

  • Gaja Puṭa

  • Varāha Puṭa

  • Kukkuta Puṭa

  • Gorvara Puṭa or Bhāṇda Puṭa

  • Bālukā Puṭa

  • Bhūdhara Puṭa

  • Lāvaka Puṭa

  • Amṛtīkaraṇa

  • Kūpīpakva

  • Madya

  • Malhara (Ointment)

  • Maṇḍa

  • Yavāgu

  • Kalkasiddha Yavāgu

  • Yūṣa (soup)

  • Lepa (A paste for external application)

  • Vaṭī (Guṭikā, Modaka, Vaṭikā, Piṇḍa, Guḍa, Candrikā, Vartikā):

  • Vilepī

  • Śatadhauta Ghṛta or Sahasra Dhauta Ghṛta

  • Śaṅkha Drāva

  • Śarkarā

  • Śītakaṣāya (Hima)

  • Śodhana (Process of Purification)

  • Akīka

  • Ahiphena

  • Kharpara

  • Gandhaka

  • Gairika

  • Ghana Pāṣāṇa Cūrṇa (Magnetic pyrites)

  • Guggulu

  • Jaharamoharā

  • Jayapāla Bīja

  • Taṅkaṇa

  • Tuttha

  • Dhattūra Bīja

  • Pārada

  • Pravāla

  • Bhallātaka

  • Bhāṅga

  • Manaḥaśilā

  • Muktā

  • Muktā Śukti

  • Rasāñjana

  • Lāṅgalī

  • Vatsanābha

  • Vidhārā Bīja

  • Viṣamuṣṭī Bīja

  • Vyomāśma

  • Snuhī Dugdha

  • Sphaṭika

  • Haratāla

  • Hiṅgu:

  • Hiṅgula

  • Śveta Parpaṭī or Vajrakṣāra

  • Ṣaḍaṅgapānīya (Bheṣaja Siddha Pānīya):

  • Satva

  • Sandhāna Kalpanā (Fermentation process)

  • Siktha Taila (Malhara)

  • Sneha Pāka (Ghṛta and Taila Pāka)

  • Sphaṭika Drava

  • Svarasa (Juice, Fresh juice)

  • Hima

  • Posology

  • Dose for Children

  • Bheṣaja Kalpanā is the branch which deals with collection, storage and various processings of the drugs by which it becomes suitable for the use of the patients.

    Collection of the drug

    Soil in which the plant grows and times of collection are the two important factors which influence the properties of the drug. Only the mature drug, which is grown in favourable season having normal characteristics like Rasa, color and smell, and free from insects, poison and dirt etc. should be collected generally in the season of Śarada (autumn). Milk, urine etc. of the animals should be collected after the complete digestion of their food.


    After collection, the drugs should be stored in the containers having covers, at dry place which is away from heat, smoke, water, dust, insect and animals.

    Generally the medicines lose their potency after one year of storage except Āsava, Ariṣṭa, metals and mercurial preparations which improve their efficacy with the storage.

    Pharmaceutical Processing

    All the drugs cannot be used in one form and they are to be transformed into such a way so that it may be agreeable to the patients without losing their efficacy. Some of the commonly used processes are being described here briefly.


    Dry or wet application for the eye is known as Añjana. It can be prepared by adding little quantity of water to the fine powder of the drug or Bhasma and made in the shape of Varti (stick).


    Keep the desired drug in a dry clean earthen pot and cover it with an earthen lid. Seal the junctions with cloth and by coating wet clay. Place the pot in the fire of Vanyopala (cow dung cakes) till the complete incineration. After cooling take out the drug from the pot carefully and powder.


    To the Yavakuṭa (coarsely powdered) drug add two times its weight of water and macerate it overnight. Next day distil it, till half of the water used is recovered as Arka.


    Prepare Kvātha of the drugs and filter. Add to the filtrate, required quantity of Guḍa, Śarkarā or honey. Keep all the medicine in a pot for about one month as described in Sandhāna Kalpanā.

    Avaleha (Rasakriyā)

    A Kvātha or Svarasa concentrated with frequent stirring in a tinned vessel at low heat yields an Avaleha. A properly prepared Avaleha can be lifted in a spoon like a treacle and when cooled after Pāka, and taken in between the fingers it does not stick to the fingers, but the fingers leave impression on it. Avaleha can also be prepared by the following methods.

    1.Take one part of Śarkarā or Guḍa and 4 parts of water. Boil it on low fire with constant stirring till it attains the consistency of the syrup. The dirt on it may be clarified by adding a little quantity of milk. Take it off from the flame, add powdered drugs gradually to make into a semisolid consistency. If honey is to be added, it should be added at this stage.
    2.If Madhu Avaleha is to be prepared, liquefy Madhu at a very low fire, strain and add desired drugs in the powder form.


    The fermentation done by adding the drugs directly to the water without preparing the Kvātha is known as Āsava. For details see Sandhāna Kalpanā.

    Upanāha (Poultice)

    Poultices are prepared by cooking Atasī, Yava, Godhūma, Haridrā etc. in water or milk or Kāñjī or Gomūtra by adding little quantity of Ghṛta or Taila. It is applied on Vraṇa or Śotha by putting the hot Lepa between two layers of pieces of clean cloth.


    Boil water in a clean earthen pot or tinned copper or other vessel having lid. Reduce it to one eighth, one fourth or one half as prescribed. On cooling strain it through muslin washed with the same water.

    Quantity of water required for the day thus prepared should be utilized within the day and fresh water should be prepared for use in the night.

    Eraṇḍa Bhṛṣṭa Harītakī

    Take coarse powder of fruit rind of small Harītakī. Fry it in four times its weight of Eraṇḍa Taila and then make the power.


    Take Śuddha Pārada in a mortar and gradually add equal parts of powder of Śuddha Gandhaka, or its prescriebed ratio. Triturate it with pastle, till globules of mercury disappesrs and fine homogenous black powder is made. The resultant mixture is known as Kajjalī.

    Kalka (Paste)

    Following are the two methods for preparation of Kalka from the green and dried drugs. Kalka should always be used fresh.

    1.Wash green material, drain the excess water, bruise with a pestle and mortar to a pulpy consistency. Collect the medicine in a suitable vessel.
    2.Place dried powder in a grinding slab, add water gradually and grind to a pulpy consistency. Collect the medicine in a suitable vessel.

    Ghṛta, Madhu and Taila if required to be mixed with a Kalka, the quantity of such Dravyas should be double that of the Kalka; Śarkarā and Guḍa should be taken four times to make a draught.

    Kvātha (Decoction)

    Place the drug in the form of Yavakuṭa (small pieces) in an earthen pot or in a tinned copper vessel with clay on the outside of the bottom. Add to it water four times if the drug is soft, eight times if the drug is moderately hard and 16 times if the drugis very hard.

    Boil it on low fire till reduced to one fourth in volume in case of soft drugs and one eighth in case of moderately hard and hard drugs. Cool down, strain and collect the filtrate in a clean vessel. If other drugs are to be added, mix them in the same proportion as described for Phāṇṭa.


    Prepare rice with two to three times its weight of water on a moderate fire till it boils. Decant the starchy supernatant liquid into a clean vessel, close the vessel, and allow to ferment for three to four days. Thereafter, allow it to settle for two days more i.e. Kāñjī is to be used on the sixth day.


    Take Pañcāṅga (whole plant) or other required part of the plant and calcine it completely in an iron saucepan. Tranfer the burnt material to an earthen pot, add six times its weight of water, mix and close the vessel. Allow it to settle overnight and next morning decant it. Filter the decant twenty one times through a muslin, washing the muslin every time. Transfer the liquid thus obtained to an earthen pot, heat on mild fire and dry to evaporation with constant stirring. Remove Kṣāra by a spatula and pack it into a bottle. Keep bottle tightly stoppered.

    Kṣīrapāka (Medicated milk)

    Kṣīrapāka are made by three methods depending upon the quantity of milk used and concentration of the Kṣīrapāka.

    1.Take one part of the drug, add to it 8 parts of milk and 32 parts of water. Boil and reduce it to the quantity of the milk strain and use the filtrate.
    2.Take 1 part of the drug and 15 parts each of water and milk. Boil and reduce to the quantity of the milk. Strain and use the filtrate.
    3.Equal quantity of milk and water boiled to remove only half of the water used. It is specially useful for children.

    Khaṇḍa Kalpanā

    Boil the required quantity of Śarkarā (raw sugar) in water and prepare saturated solution of the consistency of thick syrup. At this stage add the fine powder of the required drugs, stir and mix well. Cool it to form a candy.

    Ghṛta Pāka

    See Sneha Pāka.

    Gomūtra Harītakī

    Take one part of coarse powder of fruit rind of Harītakī and soak it in 4 parts of Gomūtra for three days. Dry in shade and use the powder.

    Catuḥṣaṣṭiprahari Pippalī

    Contuse mature Pippalī fruits with a pestle and mortar successively for eight days (sixty four Praharas).

    Cūrṇa (Powder)

    Powder the dried drug on the grinding slab or with pestle and mortar and sieve through muslin. Cūrṇa required for dusting or use in delicate parts should be sieved through extra fine muslin.

    If Guḍa is required to be mixed with the Cūrṇa, the quantity of Guḍa should be equal to that of Cūrṇa, for Śarkarā, Madhu and Ghṛta the quantity of Cūrṇa to be mixed should be double. For mixing with milk, Gomūtra or water the quantity of the Cūrṇa should be one fourth of these drugs.


    To 120 mg. to pure lime, add 60 ml. of water in a colored glass bottle and stopper the bottle. Shake at intervals of 2-3 hours. Keep bottle properly stoppered. Decant clean supernatant liquid for use.

    Juice, Fresh Juice

    See Svarasa.


    See Kvātha.

    Takra (Butter Milk)

    Takra is of three types viz. Rūkṣa Takra, Ardhodhṛta Sneha Takra and Anudhṛta Sneha Takra. Rūkṣa Takra is made by churning Dadhi (curd) with half the quantity of water, all the butter is separated and remaining liquid is taken as Takra. To prepare Ardhodhṛta Sneha Takra, Dadhi is churned with equal quantity of water, half of the butter is separated and remaining liquid is used. Anudhṛta Sneha Takra is made by adding double quantity of water to Dadhi, churned and all the liquid is to be used.


    To 50 g. of cleaned rice add 400 ml. of water in clean vessel and allow to macerate for three hours, pulp with fingers, strain and use the liquid thus obtained.

    Taila Pāka

    See Sneha Pāka.


    Prepare Kajjalī of the drugs and place it in the ghee coated big spoon. Heat it on the fire and melt to the liquid consistency. Thereafter, transfer it on the leaf of Kadalī (plantain) which is kept on the cow dung and immediately press it with another leaf of Kadalī. On cooling collect the thin plate of the medicine, known as Parpaṭī. Powder it preserve for use.


    See Cūrṇa.


    Rasp the fruit (Āmra, Parūṣaka, Ciñcā etc) into small pieces and place in a stainless steel or glass or porcelain vessel, and add water sixteen times the weight of fruit. Mash fruit into pieces. Strain through coarse cloth and add desired drugs like Marica, Elā, Lavaṅga and Śarkarā.


    Contuse fine powder of the Śuddha (pure) drug in a pestle and mortar with rose water or Candana Arka.

    Muktā, Pravāla, Jaharamoharā, Hajratabera, Akīka and Hajrat Yahuda Piṣṭī.

    Wash the drug with hot water, dry and contuse with Gulāb Arka or Candana Arka.


    See Kalka.


    See Upanāhā.


    The preparation containing more liquid and little solid is known as Peyā. Cook rice or barley in 6 times of water to get Peyā.


    Boil water four times the weight of drug in an earthen, tinned copper or other vessel, reduce by 1 part and then add bruised drug, cover and cool down. Work drug to a pulp by hand, mix, filter through muslin into an earthen, glass or porcelain vessel.

    If Jīraka, Śuddha Guggulu, Yavakṣāra, Saindhava, Śuddha Śilājatu, Bhṛṣṭa Hiṅgu, Trikaṭu etc. are required to be added to a Phāṇṭa the quantity of Dravyas should be 1 to 3 g. in any single dose. If Ghṛta, Dugdha, Guḍa, Gomūtra, Cūrṇa and Kalka etc. are to be added 3 to 12 g. should be added in one dose.


    When a solid drug is grinded continuously by adding liquid till it becomes dry, this process is known as Bhāvanā. To the Dravya, Cūrṇa etc. to be subjected to a Bhāvanā, add the juice or Kvātha or Śītakaṣāya of the desired drug to make it wet enough to be triturated in a pestle and mortar. Each such operation of wetting lasting for twenty four hours makes one Bhāvanā.


    The minerals should not be used as such. First its impurities are removed by the process known as Śodhana. Thereafter, the drug is subjected to Māraṇa process by which it is reduced to such a state in which they can be absorbed in the body. Thus powdered drug is known as Bhasma.


    Contuse the drug with required Svarasa, Kvātha etc., make its pellet and dry. Keep it in an earthen saucer, close the mouth with another saucer, seal the joints with a cloth and wet clay plaster, and dry. It is known as Mūṣā.

    The various drugs require different degree of heat to prepare their Bhasma. For this purpose prescribed Agni (fire) is used, which is know as Puṭa and this whole process is called Puṭa Pāka. Commonly used Puṭa are as follows.


    Sūrya Puṭa or Raudra Puṭa

    The drug is contused in the prescribed Svarasa and pellet exposed to heat of sun till dried.

    Candra Puṭa

    The drug (Dhātu, Upadhātu, Ratna, Uparatna) is contused in prescribed medium (Kvātha, Svarasa, Arka etc.) in moonlight till pellet is dried.

    Mahā Puṭa

    Dig a round pit into the ground, which should be half Vyāma (about 115 cm.) deep with one Hasta (about 46 cm.) radius. Fill its half portion with the dried cow dung cakes. Place the Mūṣā on it and fill the remaining half also with dried cow dung cakes. Fire and allow to cool after complete burning of the fuel (Svāṅgaśīta). Thereafter, remove the saucer, open the joint and take out the drug carefully. Powder it and preserve for use.

    Gaja Puṭa

    Dig a pit having 92 cm. length, breadth and depth in the ground. Fill it with dried cow dung cakes place the Mūṣā in the centre. Prepare the medicine in the same manner as described in Mahāpuṭa.

    Varāha Puṭa

    Dig a 46 cm. long, broad and deep (nearly half of the Gajapuṭa) pit in the ground. Fill it with cow dung cakes place the Mūṣā in the centre and fire. Prepare the medicine as in Mahāpuṭa.

    Kukkuṭa Puṭa

    Prepare a fire of Vanyopala (dried cowdung cakes) stocked in 42.5 cm. length and breadth over the ground to a height of 42.5 cm. with Mūṣā in the centre. Fire and prepare the drug as mentioned in Mahāpuṭa.

    Gorvara Puṭa or Bhāṇda Puṭa

    Mūṣā fried by placing in the centre of the vessel which is filled with cow dung dust (Gorvara) or husks of paddy is known as Gorvara Puṭa or Bhāṇḍa Puṭa respectively. Cool it, collect the medicine and powder.

    Bālukā Puṭa

    Place the Mūṣā in the centre of a strong vessel which is filled with hot sand. Allow it to cool, collect the medicine and powder it.

    Bhūdhara Puṭa

    Dig a pit of suitable size. Fill it with 2.5 cm. deep layer of sand. Keep the Mūṣā on it and place 2.5 cm. thick layer around the Mūṣā. Fire with cow dung, allow to cool and prepare the medicine as descriebd in Mahāpuṭa.

    Lāvaka Puṭa

    Make a heap of cowdung to a height of 15 cm. In the centre keep the Mūṣā (see Mahāpuṭa) and fire. Allow to cool and collect the medicine as described in Mahāpuṭa.


    Some Bhasma require further Amṛtīkaraṇa as in the case of Tāmra. Amṛtīkaraṇa is a process in which the prepared Bhasma, with half of its weight of sulphur is ground in Nimbū Svarasa for three hours. It is made into a bolus, dried, placed inside a hollow made in Sūraṇa Kanda, wrapped with wet clay cloth, fried in a Gajapuṭa and allowed to cool. Thereafter, clay wrapping is removed and material powdered.


    Place the drug in a well cleaned and absolutely dry glass bottle wrapped with cloth and wet clay plaster, seven turns upto the neck. Place the bottle over a piece of mica to hold the bottle over the central hole in an earthen or iron receptacle. Cover the sides of the bottle upto the neck with sand and fire. Gradually heat till the required heat is obtained as prescribed for the drug in the texts and cool (consult Rasaratnasammuccaya or Rasataraṅgiṇī for detailed instructions.)

    Following are the charactersitics of the perfect Bhasma fit for human use:-

    Vāritara: The Bhasma which float on water on slow sprinkling and coalesce to a type of flotilla on which even a grain can be floated is known as Vāritara.

    Rekhāpūrṇatā: The Bhasma should be so fine so as to embed furrows of skin of the finger, making the finger prints.

    Niscandra: The Bhasma should not exhibit the luster of original metal.

    Apunarbhava: The Bhasma on trituration with Guḍa, Guñja, Taṅkaṇa, honey, ghee and subjected to Sampuṭa should not restore to its original condition.


    Take three parts of the drug, four parts of Guḍa and eight parts of water. Ferment the ingredients in a closed vessel for twenty days as described in Sandhāna Kalpanā. Thereafter, distil off spirituous portion through a copper still.

    Malhara (Oinment)

    Warm oil, Ghṛta, resin etc., strain through a clean muslin, add finely powdered drugs and triturate to a homogenous non-gritty consistency.


    Prepare rice or coarsely pounded Yava with fourteen parts of its weight of water, decant and use the liquid portion as Maṇḍa.


    Yavāgū is of three types- Maṇḍa, Peyā or Vilepī. It is prepared by boiling rice with prescribed drugs, removing the supernatant liquid which is known as Maṇḍa. The liquid portion with a little quantity of Mudga or other Dvidala is known as Peyā. A Yavāgū with little of supernatant liquid and predominance of grain is calle Vilepī.

    Kalkasiddha Yavāgū

    12 or 24 or 48 g. of the drugs depending upon their Vīrya added to a litre of water with one fourth weight of coarsely pounded rice of normally taken by the patient in his diet and cooked together.

    Yūṣa (soup)

    Take 12 or 24 or 48 g. of the drug, depending upon its Tīkṣṇa, Madhya and Mṛdu Vīrya respectively and add to it 48 to 96 g. of Dvidala or Mudga, cook with 768 ml. of water reduce to half or quarter volume and strain. If Pippalī-fruit is to be added, add 6 g. of its powder.

    Lepa (A paste for external application)

    A Lepa may be cold, hot or tepid; thin, moderately thick or thick. Lepa is prepared by bruising of the drugs in Svarasa, oil, water, Ghṛta, Dadhi, Dugdha, Kāñjī, etc. The quantity of the drugs to be used should be sufficient to render a paste capable of coating the affected surface or the part of body.

    Lepa should be applied against the direction of the hair. Lepa is to be coated to the thickness of 1 cm., preferably in the day only. Lepa should be removed from the skin before it is absolutely dry, however, Lepa applied to swellings should be allowed to dry.

    Vaṭī (Guṭikā, Modaka, Vaṭikā, Piṇḍa, Guḍa, Candrikā, Vartikā):

    Mix powdered drugs sieved through muslin in enough of water, Svarasa, Kvātha, Madhu, Guḍa or Guggulu or Drava to make it into a paste. Then prepare the Vaṭī (pills), Modaka, Piṇḍa etc. by the hand.

    To prepare pills, Śarkarā, Guḍa, Guggulu and Madhu, if to be added, should be taken in four, two or equal parts respectively.


    Prepare rice or Dvidala with four times of its weight of water, till little supernatant remains.

    Śatadhauta Ghṛta or Sahasra Dhauta Ghṛta

    Take Ghṛta cleaned of the scum, add cold water and Cūrṇa in a Kānsya or tinned vessel and decant water. Repeat the process a hundred times (Śatadhauta) or a thousand times (Sahasra Dhauta) as required.

    Śaṅkha Drāva

    Take equal part of powder of Śuddha Śaṅkha, Pañca Lavaṇa, Sphaṭika, Narasāra, Kāsīsa, Taṅkaṇa, Yavakṣāra and Svarjikākṣāra in a glass still (Tiryaka Pātana Yantra). Distill it on low fire and collect the liquid in another bottle, which is known as Śaṅkha Drāva.


    To the Hima, Phāṇṭa, Ghṛta or Arka, add double its quantity of Śarkarā. Boil in low heat to a syrupy consistency, cool filter and add desired drugs to it.

    Śītakaṣāya (Hima)

    Place cleaned and washed drug in Yavakuṭa (cut to small pieces) form, in an earthen, glass or porcelain vessel. Add six times its weight of water, allow to macerate overnight. Next morning pulp with fingers and strain through washed muslin, use the liquid as Śīta Kaṣāya.

    Śodhana (Process of Purification)

    The processes adopted to eliminate or lessen the toxic or poisonous effect of the drugs, or to remove the impurities of the mineral drugs are collectivley known as Śodhana. The method of Śodhana of some of the common drugs are as follows.


    Heat Akīka to red hot, then dip in rose water and repeat process 21 times.


    Mix Ahiphena filtered through fine cloth in four times of water and concentrate to a semisolid consistency over a mild fire. Give seven Bhāvanā of Ārdraka Svarasa.


    Heat Kharpara to red hot condition and cool in Bījapūra Svarasa or Takra or Kāñjī. Repeat the process seven times.


    Melt Gandhaka in an iron saucepan dip in milk or Bhṛṅgarāja Svarasa. Draw off milk or Svarasa and again repeat the process six times.


    Mix milk to Gairika Cūrṇa after removal of stony parts and contuse till milk disappears. Repeat the process three times and dry in shade. Other method of its Śodhana is to heat Gairika Cūrṇa till moisture is removed.

    Ghana Pāṣāna Cūrṇa (Magnetic pyrites)

    Heat it to red hot and cool by dipping it in Svarasa or Kvātha of Ciñcā-leaf. Repeat the process 7 times.


    Take coarse powder of 250 g. of Triphalā and 125 g. of Guḍūcī, and four litres of water, keep over night; next morning prepare a Kvātha by reducing to half. Boil the filtrate and dip in it 250 g. of Guggulu in a muslin bag suspended by a rod across the pan. During boiling drench the bag with Kvātha and by a ladle stir costantly. In about 10 to 12 such operations the entire Guggulu will go into solution in the Kvātha when bag is empty of Guggulu, remove and discard it. Decant suspernatant liquid leaving debris, if any. Concentrate the collected liquid and dry in shade.


    Heat Jaharamoharā to red hot, dip in Godugdha or Āmalakī Svarasa and repeat the process twenty one times.

    Jayapāla Bīja

    Follow method given for Viṣamuṣṭī Bīja.


    Fry Taṅkaṇa in the saucepan, turning frequently till flowers of Taṅkaṇa appear.


    Digest with cow’s urine or buffallow’s urine or goat’s urine in Dolā Yantra for nine hours.

    Dhattūra Bīja

    Digest, mature seeds of Dhattūra in cow’s milk for three hours in Dolāyantra over a mild fire. Wash with warm water and dry.


    Consult Rasataraṅgiṇī before actual Śodhana is undertaken. It is essential that Śodhana of Pārada is carried out meticulously according to texts. (i) Contuse Pārada with its equal weight of Sudhā (lime) for three days and sieve through two folds of cloth. (ii) Take decorticated Rasona equal to the weight of Pārada and add half its weight of Lavaṇa and make Kalka. Gradually add Kalka to Pārada till the Kalka becomes black. Remove Kalka, wash mercury with water carefully.


    Wash, cleaned mature piece of Pravāla with hot water and dry. Powder in a Sumāka pestle and mortar to fine powder and contuse with Nimbū Svarasa for two days. Again contuse with Gulāb Arka or Candana Arka and dry in shade.


    Soak Bhallātaka in Gomūtra for twenty four hours, wash thoroughly; thereafter, soak in Godugdha and wash with water. Repeat the process with Godugdha three times. Cut stalk portion and ground well in sifted brick powder. Wash in water.


    (i) Wrap leaves of Bhāṅga in muslin to make a bag, wash with water repeatedly till green colouration to the washings ceases. Thereafter, dry material within muslin bag by spreading in thin layer. (ii) Tie the drug into a Poṭṭalikā and wash in water till green colour ceases to come in water, unpack Poṭṭalika (cloth bag) and dry in shade.


    Reduce it to powder and give seven Bhāvanā of Ārdraka svarasa.


    Digest with Svarasa of Jayantī leaf in Dolā Yantra for three hours. Wash with warm water, dry and contuse in Nimbū Svarasa and dry.

    Muktā Śukti

    (i) Wash Muktā-Śukti thoroughly with boiling hot water. Dip washed material in a solution of three parts of water and one part of Nimbū Svarasa and boil for three hours in an earthen pot. Remove solid contents and dry. (ii) Wash the drug with warm water, place in an earthen pot, cover the drug with water and add Nimbū Svarasa one quarter of the quantity of water, boil for an hour, cool and decant water. Clean pieces of Śukti of froth and debris, dry and powder.


    Reduce to powder and triturate in the Svarasa of Bhṛṅgarāja whole plant for seven days (seven Bhāvanā).


    Reduce the drug to small pieces, soak in Gomūtra for twenty four hours, remove from Gomūtra and dry in shade.


    Reduce Vatsanābha to small pieces and soak in Gomūtra for three days in a closed vessel changing the Gomūtra after every twenty four hours. Remove Gomūtra, wash Vatsanābha with water, digest with cow’s milk in Dolā Yantra for three hours and thereafter dry.

    Vidhārā Bīja

    Soak seeds in Apāmārga Svarasa or salt water and dry in sun.

    Viṣamuṣṭī Bīja

    Reduce the drug to small pieces and soak in Gomūtra in closed vessel for seven days, change Gomūtra every twenty four hours for seven days. Remove the skin of the seeds as well as cotyledonous coat, prepare shreds and dry.


    Digest the drug in cow’s milk in Dolā Yantra for three days.

    Snuhī Dugdha:

    To 50 ml. of Snuhī-latex, add 12 ml. Svarasa of Ciñcā fruit, mix well and filter through cloth. Dry the liquid portion in sun and use the sediment.


    Fry Sphaṭika in the saucepan turning frequently till flowers of Sphaṭika appear.


    Reduce the drug to small pieces, digest with Svarasa of Kuṣmāṇḍa fruit, or lime in Dolā Yantra for six hours over a mild fire.


    Boil Ghṛta in a saucepan add clean dried latex of Hiṅgu till fried to a brown color.


    Give seven Bhāvanā to the drug with Ārdraka Svarasa or Nimbū Svarasa or milk of sheep.

    Śveta Parpaṭī or Vajrakṣāra

    Heat pure Śaṅkha-480 g., Sphaṭika-60 g. and Narasāra-30 g. in an earthen pot, when liquid, spread uniformly on the top of a plantain leaf (unbroken) placed over a matting of Gomaya, quickly covered by another leaf of plantain (unbroken) allow to cool between the leaves.

    Ṣaḍaṅgapānīya (Bheṣaja Siddha Pānīya):

    Take 12 g. of Yavakuṭa drug in 750 ml. of water, boil in low heat reduce to half its weight, cool, strain through washed muslin.


    Rasp the green vegetable drug into small pieces and powder well with a stone or wedged pestle and mortar. Transfer it to an enamelled utensil, add four times of its weight of water, mix and agitate briskly. Strain into another vessel, cover and allow to settle over night. Decant supernatant liquid, collect settled mass in a dry shallow vessel, cover it well and dry in shade.

    Sandhāna Kalpanā (Fermentation process)

    Take an earthen pot or wooden barrel which is cleaned, fumigated by Dhūpa and coated inside with Ghṛta. Add to it water or Kvātha and dissolve in it the required quantity of Guḍa or Śarkarā or Madhu. Thereafter, add the Yavakuṭa (coarsely powdered) drugs in required quantity. Close the mouth of the vessel and allow the fermentation to proceed for one month in a warm place.

    Generally for every 12.30 litres of liquid 4.8 kg. of Guḍa or Śarkarā or Madhu is required. In case of Drākṣā, Madhūka or Kharjūra which have high saccharine contents in themselves are to be added in Ariṣṭa or Āsava, then 3.6 kg. of Guḍa, Śarkarā or Madhu need only be used for every 12.30 litre of liquid. After fermentation drain off supernatant liquid in a vessel, filter it and fill in sterillised bottles up to the three fourth of its capacity and stopper it.

    If Sandhāna is done by making the Kvātha of the drug then it is known as Ariṣṭa, but when the Sandhāna is done by adding the drugs directly to water, then it is known as Āsava.

    Siktha Taila (Malhara)

    Take 6 parts of Tila Taila if the Malhara (ointment) is required in summer and take 5 parts of Tila Taila if it is required in winter and add to it 1 part of Madhucchiṣṭa (wax). Melt by warming, mix well and cool.

    Sneha Pāka (Ghṛta and Taila Pāka)

    1.Prepare Kvātha from 1 part of the drugs in 16 parts of water and reducing it to one fourth. Add to the filtrate of the Kvātha equal weight of Ghṛta or Taila. Boil and reduce to its half the volume or till no water remains in the mixture. Cool it and preserve for use.
    2.Take 1 part of Kalka of green vegetable or prepare Kalka from 1 part of the powdered dry drugs in little quantity of water. Add of it 4 parts of Ghṛta or Taila and 16 parts of water. Boil it till Ghṛta or Taila only remains. Cool it and preserve for use.
    3.In case Ghṛta is to be Siddha with hard drugs, first Kvātha of the drugs should be made then Ghṛta is to be prepared as mentioned above in the first method.
    4.Sneha to be Siddha from a Svarasa should be prepared by the above process by taking 8 parts of Svarasa and 1 part of Ghṛta or Taila.
    5.A well prepared Sneha should not give splashing noise of water on dripping it on fire, Kalka should separate from the Sneha, and Ghṛta should not cause any froth on Pāka while a Taila should be frothy on Pāka.

    Sphaṭika Drava

    Add to 12 g. of Sphaṭika, 600 ml. of water in a bottle, stopper it and shake it after 15 minutes till Sphaṭika is dissolved. Filter through a washed muslin and use the filtrate.

    Svarasa (Juice, Fresh juice)

    1. For Green Drug: Collect green drug free from insects and infects, from a clean locality. Wash it with water, drain off excess water, cut into small pieces and grind slightly. Squeeze through a washed muslin and collect the liquid in a glass or porcelain vessel.
    2. For Dried Drug: Obtain clean dry powder of the drug, add equal or double of its weight of water depending upon the nature of the drug and allow to macerate for twenty four hours in an earthen pot, glass or porcelain vessel. Thereafter, strain through a washed muslin into another earthen, glass or porcelain vessel.
    3. Puṭapāka Svarasa: Bruise green drug in a mortar with pestle and make into a ball. Wrap it with leaves of Kamala or Vaṭa or Jambū or Eraṇḍa or Gambhārī and tie with a thread. Coat the threaded ball with a paste of wheat flour prepared in water and then apply a coating of wet clay to a thickness of two fingers. Fire the ball in Vanyopala (cow dung cakes) till clay burns to brown. Cool it, remove clay and unwrap thread and leaves used in wrapping. Press soaked material through a washed muslin and collect the juice in an earthen, glass or porcelain vessel.

    Madhu, Śarkarā, Guḍa, Jīraka, Yavakṣāra, Saindhava, Ghṛta, Taila or any Cūrṇa, if to be added to the Svarasa in one dose then the quantity of these drugs should be 3 to 18 g.


    See Śīta – Kaṣāya.


    Even general rule regarding the doses of medicines will have exceptions. Various circumstances tend to modify the operation of medicines. Some of these are connected with the original conformations of the bodies, other with the age and the sex of the individual, some with the locality and circumstances in which he is placed as influencing a system by climate, temperament, diet and regimen, others again with the state of society, its customs, superstitions and even political relations and lastly some with the conditions of the mind displayed in the moral and intellectual endowments.

    In prescribing medicines, therefore, age, sex, strength, weight, diet, profession, climate, duration of the disease, state of the stomach, idiosyncrasy and habits of life should be kept in view. Women generally require smaller doses than men and the state of underlying functions can not be over-looked.

    Temperament: Stimulants and purgatives readily affect to the more fragmetic. Thus, stimulating medicines have to be prescribed with caution on such persons while on the contrary in the melancholic the same class of medicines required to be freely prescribed in much greater frequency as compared to that admissible to other temperaments.

    Habits: Generally frequent repetition tend to habituate a patient with the result that the medicines become less effective.

    Climate: Climate modifies the medicines viz. (i) through changes brought about in the animal frame and (ii) by the changes the vegetable medicines undergo due to the climate.

    Prakṛti: Constitutional (Prakṛti) peculiarities cannot be ignored in determining the frequency of doses of medicines. Some physicians believe the regulation of frequency of doses is best done by giving a dose second time when the effect of the first dose is found gradually going down, while others opine that the dose should be maintained till health is restored.

    The doses prescribed in the ancient texts like Caraka Saṁhitā appear to be high in the present circumstances. It is on account of these factors that no clear cut directions are available so as to form a rule determination of doses and frequency of medication. The position is still more delicate in relation to the dose for the young.

    Doses for Children

    Kāśyapa Saṁhitā is the most dependable treatise on posology of the children. Kāśyapa recommends that for vegetable drugs the dose for the new born should be equal to the weight of the fruit of Viḍaṅga, which should be raised month to month by addition of the weight of a Viḍaṅga in the initial dose till the dose attains the weight of an Āmalakī at the age of fifteen years.

    Suśruta has recommended the determination of doses according to the infant. The infant upto the age of one year is considered solely dependable on milk when the dose recommended is the weight carried by the fore-finger and the index finger to the depth of the first Parva. For infants partly milk fed and parlty cereal fed (about the age of two years) the dose should be equal to the fruit of Badara.

    Thus it could be seen that the doses recommended are impracticable in modern times. Considereing these factors, the doses for different classes of Āyurvedic preparations have been adopted in this book on the basis of tradition and wherever any difference of opinion and variations were observed the posology of Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvalī has been followed. However, for the sake of convenience a posological table (Table-3) has been compiled taking into account all the above factors with a view to provide clear cut and simple directions for determintiaon of dose at different ages for the children.

    Table 3


    Form of medicinePer day dose according to the age of patients
    1 month 1 to 5 years6 to 15 yearsAdults
    Svarasa1-3 drop5-15 drop2-5 ml.7-14 ml.
    Kalka130 mg.1-2 g.2-5 g. 6-12 g.
    Cūrṇa130 mg.1-2 g.2-3 g.3-6 g.
    Kvātha1-5 drop5-15 drop2-5 ml.14-28 ml.
    Śītakaṣāya (Hima)1-5 drop5-15 drop2-5 ml.14-28 ml.
    Vaṭī16-30 mg. 30-130 mg. 130-250 mg.250-500 mg.
    Bhasma of Metals8-16 mg.30-130 mg.130-250 mg.250-500 mg.
    Āsava /Ariṣṭa1-5 drop5-15 drop2-5 ml.14-28 ml.
    Avaleha120 mg. 1-2 g. 2-5 g.12-24 g.
    Pānaka 1-5 drop5-15 drop2-5 ml.14-28 ml.
    Ghṛta1-5 drop5-15 drop2-5 g.12-24 g.
    Siddha Dugdha etc.5-10 drop1-20 ml. 100-200 ml. 100-250 ml.
    Śuddha Taṅkaṇa or Sphaṭika or Gairika 65-130 mg.130-250 mg. 250-500 mg.500 mg -1g.

    For infants from 1 to 6 month Vaṭī and Cūrṇa should be taken either powdered or ground. For infants from 1 month above the dose should be restricted to a fraction of the dose for the child of one year. Medicines may be given in mother’s milk or honey.

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